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Social Engineering in Cyber Security: A Modern Threat Landscape

Social Engineering in Cyber Security: A Modern Threat Landscape

Cybersecurity is an ever-evolving landscape, continually shaped and reshaped by the actions of both defenders and attackers. One of the most potent threats in this landscape is social engineering. Social engineering exploits the most vulnerable aspect of any security system: the human element. In this blog post, we will explore what social engineering is, how it operates, and the modern threats it presents in today's digital world.

What is Social Engineering?

Social engineering is a method of exploiting human psychology rather than technical hacking techniques to gain access to buildings, systems, or data. The aim is to trick people into revealing confidential information that can be used for fraudulent purposes.

Attackers using social engineering manipulate their targets into performing specific actions or divulging confidential information. Social engineering attacks happen in one or more stages. The attacker first investigates the intended victim to gather necessary background information, such as potential points of entry and weak security protocols, needed for a subsequent attack. Next, the attacker moves to gain the victim's trust and provide stimuli for subsequent actions that break security practices, such as revealing sensitive information or granting access to critical resources.

Types of Social Engineering Attacks

Social engineering attacks come in many forms. Here are some of the most common types:


Phishing is a technique of deceiving people into sharing sensitive information like passwords and credit card numbers. In a typical phishing scenario, a scammer sends an email that appears to come from a trustworthy organization, with the goal of tricking the recipient into entering confidential information into a fraudulent website.


Baiting involves offering something enticing to an end user in exchange for login information or private data. The "bait" comes in many forms, both digital, like a music or movie download on a peer-to-peer site, and physical, like a corporate branded USB drive labeled "Executive Salary Summary Q2 2023" left in the parking lot of a targeted company.


Pretexting is when an attacker creates a fabricated scenario to convince a victim to provide information. This method often involves a scammer pretending to need certain bits of information from their target to confirm their identity.


Also known as "piggybacking", tailgating involves someone without the proper authentication following an employee into a restricted area.

Quid Pro Quo

Quid Pro Quo involves a hacker requesting the exchange of critical data or login credentials in return for a service.

The Modern Threat Landscape

In the digital age, the threat landscape of social engineering has evolved significantly. The widespread use of social media has made it even easier for attackers to find personal information that can be used in social engineering attacks. At the same time, organizations have been slow to adapt to these changes, leaving themselves vulnerable to such attacks.

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing is a more targeted version of phishing. The scammer customizes their attack emails with the target's name, position, phone number, and other information, in an attempt to trick the recipient into believing that they have a connection with the sender.


Whaling attacks are even more targeted, taking aim at senior executives. The high-ranking position of executives makes them tempting targets for hackers.

Vishing (Voice Phishing)

Vishing, or voice phishing, is the use of social engineering over the telephone system, most often using features facilitated by Voice over IP (VoIP), to gain access to private personal and financial information from the public.

Smishing (SMS Phishing)

Smishing, or SMS phishing, is the act of manipulating the recipient of a text message to release their personal information or send money to a scammer.

How to ProtectYourself and Your Organization

Protecting against social engineering attacks requires both technological and human defenses. Here are some measures that can help minimize the risk:


The most effective defense against social engineering is education. Users need to understand what social engineering attacks look like, how they work, and what to do when they encounter them. Regularly conducted security awareness training can ensure that they are up-to-date with the latest social engineering tactics.

Policy and Procedure

Establishing strong policies and procedures is another critical step in defending against social engineering. This could include policies around sharing sensitive information, procedures for verifying identities, and protocols for reporting suspected social engineering attempts.

Multi-Factor Authentication

Multi-factor authentication (MFA) can provide an additional layer of security. Even if an attacker manages to obtain a user's credentials, without the second factor—like a temporary code sent to a user's phone—they can't gain access.

Regular Audits

Regular audits of your organization's security posture can help identify potential vulnerabilities and ensure that policies and procedures are being followed.

Technological Solutions

Technological solutions like email filters can catch phishing attempts by scanning for phishing indicators in emails. Advanced threat protection solutions can help detect and prevent sophisticated attacks.


Social engineering is a significant threat in today's digital landscape. By exploiting human psychology, attackers can bypass even the most robust technical defenses. However, by understanding what social engineering is, how it works, and how to protect against it, individuals and organizations can significantly reduce their risk. In a world where the human element is often the weakest link in the chain, taking a proactive stance on social engineering is not just recommended; it's a necessity.

Never forget, in the realm of cybersecurity, knowledge is power. The more you know about the threats you face, the better prepared you'll be to defend against them.